[To round out my research, I need to study the BRIC countries — however I realize I do not have the time to give them much more than a cursory look in all their dimensions: demographics, political economy, sociography, history, culture, religion, etc. So I thought if I were to look at them through the lens of how it might affect the expression of their cultures/countries online, that might be sufficient.
Now, please, I am not a regional expert by any means, so if I overgeneralize or say something blatantly wrong, please correct me in the comments but don’t take what I write personally — I’m only going off what I could find online, mainly through Wikipedia. Here’s Russia’s Wikipedia page, for example.]
Government: Parag Khanna argues in “The Second World” that Gazprom, Russia’s oil corporation, controls Russia and the government, with Vladimir Putin running a revivalist, nationalist agenda. It is, as Khanna says, a petrocracy, one that is acutely sensitive to oil prices. Russia is not politically free, but it is economically free — if you’re rich, you’re living well. The rest of the country has languished. Journalists who have attempted to investigate the government have been intimidated or murdered.
International Affairs: Russia continues to be a formidable security presence, exerting its influence on former Soviet satellites and in throttling Europe’s exposure to natural gas and oil. However, it seems reliant on Europe for investment, and is being trumped by China on its eastern borders. Russia’s military has not benefited from oil/gas profits — thus its ability to exert leverage has become even more concentrated in its ability to control natural resources. It can be argued that Russia now looks with embarrassment as China as a successful Communist model.
Demographics: According to Khanna, 2/3 of the Russian population lives near the poverty line. Russia has an aging population that is emigrating from the country if possible. It is still well-educated. HIV/AIDS and other health problems have surfaced as health care systems languished. Russia is in danger of losing its eastern provinces (providing most of its land mass) to China, whose economic success and cultural roots prove far more inviting. 3/4 of Russia’s economy is concentrated in Moscow.
Religion: Russian Orthodox 63%, agnostic 12%, atheist 13%, 6% Muslim.
Telecom: Russia has very low penetration, at 14%. According to comScore, the Russian internet market grew 25% in 2007, making it one of the fastest-growing (and largest) markets in the world.
Social Media Usage:
In Russia, there are two major social networking sites (SNSs): Odnoklassniki and vkontakte. Odnoklassniki is primarily for students to find each other, while Vkontakte is a blatant Facebook rip-off. Both have the same percentage reach of the overall internet market. The difference is that Vkontakte users spend 689 average minutes on the site per month, whereas Odnoklassniki users only spend 120 average minutes on their site. (comScore) This means that although both have similar statistics, Vkontakte usage is richer, and, in the long-run, will grow faster.
“What’s more, some users try to demonstrate to their friends that they no longer use Odnoklassniki and have moved to Vkontakte by displaying a graphical image as their avatar or one of the photos reading “moved to Vkontakte” to avoid the automatic filters for the text messages – but such photos are quickly deleted by moderators of the network anyway.
“I have to admit this looks like a creative way to avoid migration of your users to your competitor but at the same time I have a feeling it should be frowned on at the very least. For example, I have seen Odnoklassniki buying ad space on Facebook to display to the Russian users and a Facebook advertising team representative told me that their ToS for the advertising program did not prevent competitors from paying to reach the users of the social network.”
Noticeable is that Facebook has almost no exposure in Russia, although it only added language localization in June of 2008.
Odnoklassniki seems on the surface to not be appealing in a broader sense than networking among students. Facebook started off this way, however, but expanded for wider social networking. Vkontakte is exploiting the success of Facebook, but in an inferior manner — fewer controls and features.
Furthermore, I disagree with the blog post that suggests the only option for Facebook is to buy its clone Vkontakte to take the users and grab much of the Russian market. I would predict that if Russia’s integration into the larger internet community grows, Facebook will quickly syphon users away from Vkontakte.